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Film Editing Glossary PDF Print E-mail
A/B Edit
    An editing technique in which the output is switched form one video source (A) to another (B).

A/B-roll
    A method of conforming that limits the amount of optical work by managing most standard dissolves and fades using two strands of film. Also called double-strand editing.

A/D
    Converter Analog-to-digital converter. A device that transforms a continuously variable (analog) signal to discrete binary bits that represent digital samples of the original signal.

AAF
    Advanced Authoring Format. A cross-platform multimedia file format that allows interchange of media and composition information between AAF- compliant applications.

AC-3
    Audio Compression-3 is usually marketed as Dolby® Digital and used in DVD, HDTV, and many movie theaters.

Absolute time
    The time assigned to a clip when it was encoded.

Academy
    Pertaining to specifications that meet the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences standards, such as academy leader, academy format (for film stock), academy countdown, and so forth.

Academy Leader
    Leader which conforms to the standards set up by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. From the projection start mark on this leader, it is exactly eight seconds (12 feet in 35 mm, four feet and 32 frames in 16 mm) until the beginning of the picture.

Academy Roll-Off
    A standard, established by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, for movie theater sound. It involves decreasing quite a bit of the high-frequency sound. This roll-off is what Dolby film sound tries to avoid.

ACCET
    The Accrediting Council for Continuing Education and Training has been overseeing the quality of continuing educational programs since the 1970's. The agency's mission is to ensure that quality educational programs are available in communities all over the United States and abroad.

ADAT
    Alesis Digital Audio Tape. A proprietary audio standard for a multichannel optical digital interface, which is used in the family of Alesis ADAT digital multitrack recorders. The standard ADAT data stream contains eight channels of digital audio data.

Add edit
    An edit added between consecutive frames in a sequence segment within the timeline. An add edit separates segment sections, so you can modify or add effects to a subsection of the segment.

ADR
    Automatic Dialogue Replacement. See Looping.

AES
    Audio Engineering Society. The primary international organization of users and producers of professional audio.

AFE
    Advanced File Exchange. A file format based on Advanced Authoring Format (AAF) technology. AFE files let you share project information among Avid applications by transferring one or more bins, their contents, and information about the contents.

AIFF-C
    Audio Interchange File Format-Condensed. A sampled-sound file format that allows for the storage of audio data. This format is primarily used as data interchange format but can be used as a storage format as well.

ALE
    Avid Log Exchange. A file format specifically designed to hold information about log files generated by the application. An ALE file contains information about the source material.

Aliasing
    Inaccurate rendering of an image due to a low digital-sampling rate. Aliasing effects on graphics and text include staircasing along diagonal lines, moiré effects in checkerboards, and temporal aliasing (strobing) in animated scenes.

Analog
    Analog video and audio emit a steady wave of magnetic patterns that are interpreted as video and audio to be transferred to magnetic tape for viewing.

Anamorphic
    A method of getting wide-screen images from normal 35 mm film. In the shooting, a special lens is used which squeezes the image. A matching lens reverses the process for projection. If you were to look at a frame of anamorphic film without "unsqueezing" it (such images would be called "squeezed") it would look like the image on a balloon after the air has been let out of it.

Animation
    The movement of elements through time and space. Also, the process of creating and recording images that change over time.

Annotation
    A description of your material, including the author name, category, and other information you may want to save. Annotations let you quickly locate files and information about them.

Answer Print
    A timed (color-corrected) print of the film. It may or may not have a soundtrack married to it.

Anti-alias
    Removing the jagged edges from letters or graphic elements such as titles and 3D objects.

Assembly
    A rough piecing-together of the cut, sometimes called a "rough cut." The assembly consists of all of the scenes shot, and usually runs quite a bit longer than the finished film.

Aspect Ratio
    The ratio of the width of the picture to the height. Displays commonly have a 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratio. Program material may have other aspect ratios such as 2.35:1, resulting in it being "letterboxed" on the display./

Attribute clip
    A mechanism that applications can use to store supplemental information in a special track that is synchronized to the other tracks in a track group.

AVI
    Stands for Audio Video Interleave and is one of the most common formats for audio/video data on the PC.

Audio clip

    A sound file that can be added to a scene.

Audio timecode
    Longitudinal timecode (LTC) recorded on an audio track.

Avid AirSPACE
    A multichannel broadcast video server (Avid AirSPACE) that features digital system automatically saves your work, copies of your files or bins are placed in the Avid Attic folder until the folder reaches the specified maximum.

Avid Attic folder
    The folder containing backups of your files or bins. Every time you save or the system automatically saves your work, copies of your files or bins are placed system automatically saves your work, copies of your files or bins are placed in the Avid Attic folder.

Avid Certified Instructor
    Avid Technology maintains a comprehensive program that qualifies experienced Avid editors to become Avid Certified Instructors for specific Avid products. ACI instructors regularly become re-certified for new Avid products and courseware.

Avid Certified User
    The ACU status is achieved by mastering a comprehensive set of skills on the Avid editing system and passing a rigorous multiple-choice exam.

Avid drive
    The internal hard drive of the Avid or system’s setup, the internal hard drive may have a different name. Digidesign system. Depending on your system’s setup, the internal hard drive may have a different name.

Avid editing system
    The system where your Avid editing software is installed.

Avid iNEWS
    An integrated, digital news creation and production system (Avid iNEWS) for broadcasting that provides up-to-date news data throughout a newsroom and seamlessly links news-gathering, production processes and device control tasks.

Avid MediaBrowse
    A nonlinear video editing and browsing system (Avid MediaBrowse) for journalists, allowing them to create simple cuts-only packages or shot lists in low-resolution video, which can be conformed later to high-resolution for broadcast.

Avid Projects folder
    The folder containing your projects.

Avid Unity MediaManager
    A media database that lets you search a large number of media objects (master clips, sequences, effects and objects that reference digital media) in the Avid Unity MediaNetwork shared environment.

Avid Unity TransferManager
    A web-browser-based transfer utility that lets you move projects, compositions, or bins between Avid applications. You can use TransferManager by itself, peer-to-peer (Windows systems only) transfer or in an Avid Unity workgroup environment.

AVR Avid Video Resolution
    The compression level at which visual media is stored by the Avid system. The system creates media in a particular AVR by using proprietary conversion algorithms to convert analog video to digital form.

B-negative
    Takes which were shot and developed but not printed.

B-roll
    An exact copy of the A-roll original material, or new original material on a separate reel, for use in A/B-roll editing.

B–Y
    One of the color difference signals in the component color system of the NTSC video standard. The signal formula is: B–Y = 0.299R (red) – 0.587G (green) + 0.886B (blue).

Background track
    A type of track whose contents appear below the contents of the tracks above it. Background tracks can be used to create simple composites.

Balancing
    See Reel Balancing.

Bar code
    A pattern of vertical stripes of varying width and spacing that encodes information. Bar codes can be used to encode timecode on film.

Base
    The bottom side of the film. It is shiny, as opposed to the top part of the film -- the emulsion which is dull. Actually, the base is a plastic material onto which the three layers of color film stock (or the one layer of black and white) are glued. See also Emulsion.

Baseline
    A line, either visible or not visible, indicating where the base of characters of typed text will be placed. For example, when typing in English, the baseline is typically a left to right horizontal line.

Batch capture
    An automated process in which groups of clips, sequences, or both are captured (recorded digitally) in one pass. Also called batch record.

Baud
    The number of electrical oscillations that occur each second. Baud was the prevalent measure for bandwidth or data transmission capacity, but bps (bits per second) is used most often now and is more accurate.

Best light
    A telecine transfer performed with optimum settings of the color grade controls, but without precise scene-by-scene color correction.

Beep tone
    A short tone which can be used to mark a specific location on a soundtrack. It is commonly used at the beginning of reels, two seconds before the beginning of the picture (nine feet after the start mark in 35 mm, three feet and 24 frames in 16 mm).

Betacam, Betacam SP
    Two component videotape and video recording standards by Sony Electronics, Inc. Sony Betacam was the first high-end cassette-based system, recording video onto 1/2-inch magnetic tape.

Bézier
    A type of curve that always passes through control points. A Bézier point on a curve lets you control the smoothness or sharpness of the curve at the point. See also Linear and spline.


Big Close-up (abbr. BCU)
    A shot taken very close to the subject (closer than would be necessary for a close-up), revealing extreme detail. (i.e., part of the human face)

Bin
    A database in which master clips, subclips, effects, and sequences are organized for a project. Bins provide database functions to simplify the organization and manipulation of material for recording, capturing, and editing.

Bit depth
    The number of bits used to represent the color of a pixel. Black and white images use a bit depth of 1, 16-color images use a bit depth of 4, 256-color images use 8, and so on.

Bit map

    A set of numerical values specifying the colors of the pixels in a graphic image. A representation of images or graphic information is made up of individual bits of picture information or pixels (picture elements).

Bit rate
    The transfer speed of data within a computer or between a computer and a peripheral.

Black burst
    A video signal that has no luminance or chrominance components (except burst), but contains all the other elements of a video signal. Black burst is the reference signal commonly used for timing audio and video samples.

Black edits
    A video source with no image.

Black point
    The luminance value in a video image that is set to be equal to reference black when making a color adjustment. See also white point.

Blue (or Green) Screen
    A special effects procedure in which a subject is photographed in front of a uniformly illuminated blue or green background. A new background image can be electronically substituted for the blue or green during the shoot or in postproduction through the use of chroma key to convert analog video to digital form.

Bridging shot
    A shot (cut) used to cover a break in time, or other break in continuity.

Broadcast system
    A broadcast system allows public access to electronically transmitted information. Typically, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates a commercial television or radio station.

Bump
    When two sounds are cut together it is possible that the background sounds will not match exactly. The effect of the different sounds cut together is called a bump. The tasks of "dialogue splitting" and "mixing" are designed to smooth out these bumps and end up with one seamless soundtrack.

Bumping up
    The transfer of a program recorded on a lower quality videotape to a higher quality videotape (such as from 3/4-inch to 1-inch videotape, or from S-VHS to MII).

Burn-in
    A visible timecode permanently superimposed (burned in) on footage, usually in the form of white numbers in a black rectangle. Burned-in timecode is normally used for tracking timecode during previews or offline editing.

Bypass
    To mute an audio effect in order to listen to the original audio signal. Bypassing an effect lets you compare your audio signal with and without the effect.

Camera Original
    The actual film that went through the camera on location.

Capture
    To digitally transfer audio or video material from an external device, such as a videotape recorder, to a shared storage location or the local disk storage on your workstation.

Capture Mask effect
    An effect that converts the format of source data during playback. For example, it could convert video frame data between PAL (25 fps) and NTSC (29.97 fps) formats.

Capture resolution
    The size and quality of the media file created when you capture source material.

Card
    A particular kind of credit optical in which the names remain stationary, fading in and out.

Cel animation
    Traditional animation where cels are sequentially recorded. Cels are sheets of transparent plastic, originally called celluloid. Images are hand painted or drawn on cels.

Changeover Cue
    The second changeover cue. When the projectionist sees it, s/he is supposed to switch the projection from one projector to the other.

Changeovers
    The marks which are placed in the upper right hand corner of the frame to cue the projectionist to change from one reel to another.

Character Reel
    A reel set up for an ADR session which contains one character's lines only.

Cheated Track
    A piece of track which is cut into the work track purposely out of sync with the picture.

Chroma
    The saturation and hue characteristics of a composite video signal; the portion of the video signal that contains color information. Adjust the chrominance and other video levels before recording or capturing.

Chroma Key
    Also known as blue screen or green screen, this is a special effects procedure in which a subject is filmed in front of a uniformly illuminated blue or green background. A new background image can be electronically substituted for the blue or green during the shoot or in post-production.

ChromaWheel
    ChromaWheel controls appear in the Color Correction tool and are used to adjust hue and saturation in a sequence. ChromaWheel controls provide an adjustment method that is similar to the physical controllers on traditional color correction equipment.

Chrominance
    The saturation and hue characteristics of a composite video signal; the portion of the video signal that contains color information. Adjust the chrominance and other video levels before recording or capturing.

Cinetabs
    Small tabs which are used for identification of individual rolls of film or sound. Also called "trim tabs."

Clapper
    See Slate.

Click Track
    A musical rhythm. Each click represent one musical beat. A click of 12/0 denotes that one beat of music comes every 12 frames.

Close-up (abbr. CU)
    A shot taken very close to the subject ( or with the subject of the shot very large in the frame), revealing a detail only. (i.e., the human face, or hands).

Code Number
    A number which is physically printed onto the edge of the film, in ink. It is used to identify pieces of film and track in the editing room and to keep the picture and track in sync. These numbers usually run one every foot. Also called an "edge number."

Codec
    Short for compressor/decompressor, a codec is any technology for compressing and decompressing data. Codecs can be implemented in software, hardware, or both.

Coding
    Once the workprint and sound stock (mag) have been placed in sync, the rolls are coded with matching yellow edge numbers so they can be matched up later once they have been cut up into pieces.

Color balance
    The adjustment of the relative levels of color signals to produce the best quality image or effect.

Color bars
    A standard color test signal, displayed as a video pattern of eight equal width columns (that is, “bars”) of colors. SMPTE color bars are a common standard.

Color Cards
    Standardized cards which contain a scale of colors. When these are shot, it is easy to tell just how far the filmed colors deviate from the actual colors. Such cards facilitate the color correcting of a film.

Color Correction
    The process of adjusting the color characteristics of video material to achieve an accurate representation of color and consistency of color from one clip in a sequence to another.

Color frame
    A sequence of video fields required to produce a complete pattern of both field and frame synchronization and color subcarrier synchronization. The NTSC system requires four fields; PAL requires eight.

Color model
    Any system used to specify colors. You can set color according to the following color models: RGB (red, green, blue), HLS (hue, lightness, saturation), or HSV (hue, saturation, value). See also RGB, HLS, and HSV.

Color reference burst
    The color synchronizing signal included as part of the overall composite video signal. When compared with the color subcarrier signal, the color reference burst determines the hue of the video image.

Composite
    Composite video was created as a backward-compatible solution for television's transition from black and white to color. Usually recognized as a yellow plug, composite video cable is often teamed with a red and white audio connection.

Compositing
    The overlaying of several layers of DV over the main footage. This facility is found in painting, drawing and graphics programs.

Conformation
    A change made to a reel after it has been locked.

Conforming
    The cutting of the OCN to match the final cut of a film.

Console
    A moviola with one picture head and two sound heads. Often a second sound head is attached onto a regular moviola. This attachment is called an "add-a-plate."

Contact print
    A print made in a contact printer where the original element and duplicate element actually are pressed together at the point of expose (no lens involved). Workprints and "dirty dupes" are made this way.

Container clip
    A type of clip that combines multiple audio or video clips to create a mixdown, composite, or special effect. When you close a container clip, it appears as a single clip on the timeline.

Continuity of motion
    The flow of action from one shot to the next as it is placed on the screen at the cut point. Placing the significant action at the end of a shot in the same area of the screen where the significant action will begin in the next shot.

Continuity editing
    Editing that creates action that flows smoothly across shots and scenes without jarring visual inconsistencies. Establishes a sense of story for the viewer.

Contrast
    The range of light-to-dark values present in a film or a video image.

Control point(s)
    A location on a Bézier curve that controls its direction. Each control point has two direction handles that can extend from it.

Control track
    The portion of the video recording used to control longitudinal motion of the tape during playback. Control track can be thought of as electronic sprocket holes on the videotape.

Controller
    With remote processing, and media and project indexing services in Avid DS Nitris, one workstation is designated as the controller where all these services will run. If you have only one Avid DS Nitris workstation, then it is the controller.

Core
    A two- or three-inch diameter plastic disc which is exactly the width of the film. The film or mag is wound onto the cores for editing or projection. See also Split Reel.

Coverage
    The various angles that a director shoots for a scene.

Crawl
    A particular kind of credit optical in which the names move up or down the screen.

Crawling text
    Text that moves horizontally over time. Examples include stock and sports score tickers that appear along the bottom of a television screen.

Credit roll
    Another name for a rolling credit, a list of job titles and names that scrolls vertically at the end of television programs and feature films.

CRI
    Color Reversal Intermediate. A particular kind of reversal (original) film which can be struck directly from another negative, without going through an intermediate positive stage, such as with an I.P.

CRI Print
    A release print from a CRI, as opposed to an EK print.

Cross-cut
    The intercutting of shots from two or more scenes so the fragments of each scene will be presented to the viewers attention alternately. - see parallel action

Cross-fade
    A method of smoothly moving from one video clip or photo to another. With a cross-fade transition, the frames in the playing clip fade out as the frames in the new clip fade in.

Cut
    The cut-together work picture and work track, either together or singly.

Cut list
    A series of output lists containing specifications used to conform the film work print or negative.

Cut Picture
    See Work Picture.

Cutaway
    A shot of something outside the frame that can be used to hide an edit (i.e. going from a wide shot of a scene to a close-up of unwrapping presents at a birthday party).

Cutter Moviola
    A type of upright moviola which has no arms on it, is easier to take film on and off of, and is gentler on the film than a regular moviola, all of which facilitates its use as a cutting machine.

Cutting copy
    The work picture.

D-M-E Track
    A M & E full coat track which also includes, usually on channel one, the mixed dialogue to be used as a reference for foreign dubbing.

Dailies
    Every day during the shooting of a film, the director and some members of the cast and crew view the footage shot the preceding day to verify that everything is satisfactory. If it is not, some of the footage may have to be reshot. These screenings are called "dailies screenings" or "rushes."

Ceck controller
    A tool that allows the user to control a deck using standard functions such as shuttle, play, fast forward, rewind, stop, and eject.

Degaussing
    The process of erasing all sound from a piece of magnetic stock or tape.

Decompose
    To create new, shorter master clips based on only the material you have edited and included in your sequence.

Deinterlace
    The process of separating the odd and even fields in a clip. When you deinterlace a clip, each field becomes a frame and the clip’s duration is doubled.

Dialogue Splitting
    The process of separating work track pieces which bump together onto separate elements so that each may be treated separately at the mix.

Digital nonlinear accelerator
    Digital nonlinear accelerator (DNA) is a hardware subsystem designed to operate in conjunction with Avid software to multiply host processing performance.

Digital Video (DV)
    A format for storing digital audio and video used by DV-standard digital video cameras.

Digitize dip
    An adjustment to an audio track in which the volume gain level decreases or “dips” to a lower level, rather than fading completely.

Dissolve
    A video or an audio transition in which an image from one source gradually becomes less distinct as an image from a second source replaces it. An audio dissolve is also called a segue. See also crossfade and fade.

Dithering
    The process of blending pixels of different colors to give the illusion of an intermediate color that is not usually displayable due to color depth limitations.

Dolby® Digital
    Dolby® Digital (AC-3) is Dolby's third generation audio coding algorithm. It is a perceptual coding algorithm developed to allow the use of lower data rates with a minimum of perceived degradation of sound quality. Dolby Digital audio is used as the standard audio track on Digital Versatile Discs (DVD), is the standard audio format for High Definition Television (HDTV), and is being used for digital cable and satellite transmissions.

Dolly shot
    A shot taken while the camera is in motion on a dolly.

Domestic Version
    The major release of a film, in the United States and English speaking countries.

Double Reel
    When the film is ready to be distributed, the 1000 foot editing reels are combined into 2000 foot reels for theaters. This is accomplished by combining reels one and two into Double Reel One, editing reels three and four into Double Reel Two, and so on.

Drop-frame timecode
    A type of SMPTE timecode designed to match clock time exactly. Two frames of code are dropped every minute on the minute except the tenth minute, to correct for the fact that color frames occur at a rate of 29.97 fps, rather than an exact 30 fps.

Drop Shadow
    A design for titles in which a small, darker, extra copy of the words is superimposed onto the title, slightly askew of it. This gives the words more readability.

Dub
    See Mix.

Dubbing
    1) Mixing the film. 2) Looping.

Dupe
    A copy. Picture is often duped onto a piece of black-and-white film. Such dupes are called "slop dupes" or "slop prints." When tracks are duped it is normal to ask for a one-to-one copy, to preserve the same volume level and equalization as the original track.

Dupe negative
    A negative element printed from a positive print (an inter-positive). Release prints are printed from a dupe negative.

Dupe reel
    A reel designated for the recording and playback of dupes (duplicate shots) during videotape editing.

DVD (Digital Video Disc)
    A CD-sized media providing MPEG-2 cinema-quality video and high levels of interactivity

Edge Number
    See Code Number.

Edit rate
    In compositions, a measure of the number of editable units per second in a piece of media data (for example, 30 fps for NTSC, 25 fps for PAL, and 24 fps for film).

Editing
    The work of selecting and joining together shots to create a finished film

Editing Bench
    A wide table on which most of the editorial equipment sits. As a result, most of the physical cutting of the film is done on it. Both the rewinds and the synchronizer are on this table, as well as the splicers and a host of other equipment. Editors who edit their films on flatbeds do not use editing benches as much as editors who cut on an upright since the flatbed itself functions as the bench for most of their editing work. Sometimes referred to as the Editing Table.

Effect
    1) In picture, an optical or special photographic manipulation of the film. 2) In sound, a specific sound, such as of a tire squeal or water dripping. 3) Also used to mean a special manipulation of elements during the shooting of the film, such as the creation of rain or snow.

EK Print
    A release print from the camera original, as opposed to an I.P. Print, or a CRI print.

Element
    An individual sound track at a mix. Also called a "unit."

Emulsion
    The top side of the film. It is dull, as opposed to the bottom part of the film -- the base -- which is shiny. Your lips will leave a mark on the emulsion side of film.

Encode
    To add data such as timecode, cues, or closed-captioned information to a video recording.

EPS
    Electronic Post-Sync. See Looping.

Errors of continuity
    Disruptions in the flow of a scene, such as a failure to match action or the placement of props across shots.

Establishing shot
    A shot used near the beginning of a scene to establish the inter-relationship of details to be shown subsequently in closer shots.

Extension
    In sound or in picture editing, a trim which is added to a piece already used in the film.

Eye Sync
    The process of syncing up picture and track without slates. It involves finding points in the sound which can easily be located on the picture as well, such as door slams. Certain letters of the alphabet also provide good sync points, such as the letters b, d, k, p, or t.

Eyeline match
    The matching of eyelines between two or more characters. For example, if Sam looks to the right in shot A, Jean will look to the left in shot B. This establishes a relationship of proximity and continuity.

Fades
    Opticals in which an image gradually goes to black (fade-out) or emerges from black (fade-in). It is also possible to have images fade in from or out of other colors besides black, such as white.

Fade-in
    A shot which begins in total darkness and gradually lightens to full brightness. 2. (v.) To gradually bring sound from inaudibility to required volume.

Fade-out
    The opposite of a fade-in.

Field
    One-half of the scan lines in an interlaced video frame. In most systems, the odd-numbered lines form one field, and the even-numbered lines form the second.

Field dominance
    The order in which odd and even fields occur in time.

Fill
    Waste film. It is used to space out soundtracks within a reel to preserve synchronization with the picture. It is also called "slug" or "spacing."

Filler clip

    A segment of a sequence that contains no audio or video information. Filler can be added to the Source monitor (or pop-up monitor) and edited into a sequence. See also filler proxy.

Filler proxy
    The result of a composition specifying media to be played for the filler clips in each track.

Film composer
    Avid Film Composer is a variation of the industry-standard Avid Media Composer family of digital editing systems that is specifically designed for working with images converted from motion picture film.

Film timecode
    Timecode added to the film negative during the film shoot via a film timecode generator. Film timecode numbers are synced to the film key numbers on the dailies during the telecine transfer process.

Final cut
    The finished edit of a film, approved by the director and the producer. This is what the audience sees.

Flash Frames
    As the camera is slowing down at the end of a take it lets more light in. This shows up as a frame or two on the film where the image is very bright. Flash frames are handy for identifying the ends of takes.

Flatbed
    A kind of editing machine. The separate film and soundtrack are run horizontally across this table-like device in sync with each other.

Flipped Track
    Track which has been turned upside down, so that it will not read. Track is flipped so that it will be in sync and ready to be used in case it is desired by simply unflipping the track.

Float
    To temporarily suspend a story. The story’s time is removed from the show timing. Float time is also ignored by the teleprompter and machine control. Floating is used when you are not sure whether or where to put a story in a rundown.

Flop Track
    Track which has been turned around so that what was the left side of the frame becomes the right and vice versa.

Foleys
    Effects, usually body movement of some sort, such as footsteps or clothes rustle. which is recorded in sync with picture.

Four-Stripe
    See Full Coat.

Four-Track
    See Full Coat.

FPS (Frames per Second)
    FPS refers to how many video frames are shown on a screen every second. PAL and SECAM video are delivered to the screen at 25 FPS. NTSC video is 29.97 or 30 FPS, while cinema films are 24 FPS.

Frame
    An individual picture on the film. Each frame is exposed for 1/48th of a second. The camera shutter is then closed for 1/48th of a second while the film is pulled down to the next film frame, which is then exposed for 1/48th of a second. It is the rapid projection of succeeding frames, in which the position of the elements in the picture changes slightly from frame to frame, which gives the audience the illusion of motion.

Frame Line
    The space between two succeeding frames.

Frame size
    The dimensions of a digital image in Avid DS Nitris. These measurements are based on DSUs (Avid DS Nitris units) so that they provide a common unit of measure between video images and computer-generated graphics.

Full Coat
    35mm track which is completely covered with oxide. As many as six tracks of sound can be recorded onto it. Other configurations are four and three tracks. For that reason, full coat is also known as "three-track," "three-stripe, "four-track," or "four-stripe."

Gray Scale
    A standardized card which works exactly like a color card except that it shows gradated black-to-white rather than colors.

Grid
    A visual representation of equally spaced horizontal and vertical intervals, along which objects can be aligned. A grid appears as dots at these intervals.

H.264
    The high-compression multimedia format/technology supported by Apple® iPod® and Sony® PSP®. H.264 encoding delivers high-quality videos with two to three times the compression efficiency of solutions such as the MPEG-2 standard, which is used in DVD video.

Handle
    An extra few frames attached to the head and tail of an optical, beyond what is needed.

Hard out
    A story in a newscast that has a fixed start time, usually at the end of a segment or show.

Hard recording
    The immediate recording of all audio, video, timecode, and control tracks on a magnetic recorder. Because hard recording creates breaks in any existing timecode or control track on the tape, this procedure is often performed on blank tape.

HD or HDTV
    High definition television. A format defined by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) as having a resolution of approximately twice that of standard NTSC or PAL VIDEO. The HDTV aspect ratio is 16:9. Analog TV has a ratio of 4:3.

Head frame
    The first frame in a clip or in a segment of video.

Hi-Con
    A black and white optical stock often used for credits or special effects.

High resolution
    Digital video of a resolution suitable for broadcast.

Histogram
    In color correction, a graph that plots the distribution of pixels in an image based on their brightness. Provides a visual guide to the makeup of a video image in terms of relative luminance.

Hole
    A portion of a soundtrack which has no sound in it.

Hollywood-grade
    An informal term that indicates quality standards for productions, personnel and technical expertise meet recognized requirements for the Hollywood film, television and post-production industries.

IP/IN
    The process of making a new negative of a film by striking an interpositive and then, from that, a new negative -- the internegative. In recent years, this two-step process was replaced by the CRI process. But advances in the IP/IN stocks now make this a preferable method for release printing.

I.P. (Inter-positive) Print
    A release print from an I.P., as opposed to an EK print.

Image clip
    A copy or instance of a source image. Each time you use a source image, an image clip of it is created. You can have as many clips of the same source as you need. You can then manipulate the clip without affecting the original source image.

iNEWS ControlAir
    A machine control system for on-air operations (iNEWS ControlAir), which can be integrated into the iNEWS newsroom computer system or operate as a standalone environment.

Industry-authorized
    Major digital media software manufacturers, such as Avid Technology, Digidesign / Pro Tools and Adobe, maintain a network of Authorized Training Centers for their products.

Insert Edit
    An electronic edit where the original video and audio are replaced with new footage. Also see Assembly Edit.

Interlace
    To combine the odd and even fields in a clip. When you interlace a clip, each frame becomes a field and the clip’s duration is halved.interpolation The process used to estimate an unknown value between two or more known values.

Interpolate
    The calculation of intermediate values between two points, or in the case of animation, between two keyframes. See also easing (ease-in, ease-out).

Interpositive
    A positive film stock, used for optical negatives, sometimes called an "I.P." Technically, a color fine-grain positive print used for making color dupe negatives.

Iris
    Visible on screen as a circle closing down over or opening up on a shot. Seldom used in contemporary film, but common during the silent era of Hollywood films.

Jam syncing
    The process of synchronizing a secondary timecode generator with a selected master timecode.

Jump cut
    A cut which breaks the continuity of time by jumping forward from one part of an action to another.

KEM
    A brand name for a common flatbed editing machine.

Key Number
    A number which is imprinted into the edge of the film negative. This number is then exposed on to the print film, giving a permanent record of every piece of film used in the movie. Also called a "latent edge number."

Keyframe
    The value of an animated parameter that is set at a given point in time. Parameter values between keyframes are obtained by interpolating between keyframe values.

Keyframe marker
    The visual representation of a keyframe.

Keyframing
    The process for animating values over time. Each keyframe is a frame that explicitly defines one or more parameter values. Values for frames between two keyframes are computed by interpolating (averaging) the values at the keyframes.

KeyKode
    An extension of the latent edge numbers whereby each frame is given a number. These numbers are recorded as a barcode on the negative and can be read by a special reader in the lab or transfer house.

Lab roll
    Rolls of OCN compiled by the lab for printing which may consist of several camera rolls.

Latent Edge Number (see Key Number)
    Numbers that are printed onto the edge of the negative by the manufacturer. These numbers print through onto the workprint and are used by the negative matchers (conformers) to match the OCN to the final cut of the picture.

Leader
    White-coated film which is used at the heads and tails of film and soundtrack. It serves several purposes. It protects the film itself since it is wound on the outside of the reels rather than the valuable picture. It also provides the thread-up necessary for projection. Since it can be easily written on, it is also used as identification.

Legal effects
    The lengths for fades and dissolves which can be executed by most printers (16, 24, 32, 48, 64 and 96 frames).

Letterbox
    A technique for displaying widescreen video on a screen with a different aspect ratio by adding black borders above and below the original frame.

LFOA
    Last Frame of Action. The last frame on a reel of film or track before the leader begins.

Library shot
    A shot used in a film, but not originally taken for that film.

Lift
    Piece of cut picture or track which is removed from the film and stored intact, rather than being broken apart and stored as trims.

Line feed
    A recording or live feed of a program that switches between multiple cameras and image sources. Also known in sitcom production as the director’s cut.

Linear/Non-Linear
    When video is stored on normal video tape it is done so in a linear fashion. This means that one scene follows another in a sequential order. With non-linear editing the video information is stored on the hard disk in the computer and you can record scenes in any order. This is because it is possible to access the material on the hard disk almost instantly and randomly.

Linear editing
    A type of tape editing in which you assemble the program from beginning to end. If you require changes, you must rerecord everything downstream of the change.

Lock
    That point in the editing of the film when the picture editing is over. The cut is then "locked."

Long shot (abbr. LS)
    A shot taken from a considerable distance. Often the LS serves as an establishing shot. (i.e., a human figure taken so it is shorter than the height of the screen)

Loop
    A piece of track which has been joined at its ends to form a continuous band. When played, it will go around in a circle until stopped providing a nice continuous sound.

Looping
    Dialogue replacement. Sometimes called dubbing. Also called "ADR" or "EPS."

Lossless compression
    A compression scheme in which no data is lost. In video compression, lossless data files are usually very large.

Lossy compression
    A compression scheme in which data is thrown away, resulting in loss of image quality. The degree of loss depends on the specific compression algorithm used.

Low-Con print
    A print that is made on a print stock which has been flashed evenly white light prior to the image being exposed on it. This yields a lower contrast print (brings up the black levels) which in turn yields a more attractive video transfer.

Low resolution
    The digital video of a resolution suitable for edits or distribution over a network, but not for broadcast.

LTC Longitudinal timecode
    A type of SMPTE timecode that is recorded on the audio track of a videotape. LTC can be easily read when the tape is moving forwards or backwards but not at freeze frame.

M & E Track
    A mixed full-coat which has the music on one channel (usually channel two), the mixed effects on another usually channel three) and no dialogue.

Mag
    Soundtrack stock.

Mag stock
    Magnetic sound recording stock which has edge perforations that match those perfs. on the picture stock, thereby allowing it to be pulled along with the picture at the same speed and relative position.

Married Print
    At no time during the shooting or editing of a film are the sound and picture on the same piece of film. It is not until the film is ready to go into the theaters that the two are combined, or "married," together. See also Optical Track.

Matched cut
    A cut joining two shots whose compositional elements match, helping to establish strong continuity of action.

Matte Shot
    An optical in which part of one shot is combined with part of another to create another shot which did not exist to begin with. An example would be taking a shot of an astronaut shot in a studio, combining it with a shot of a scene which appears to be on the moon.

Master shot
    A shot which covers an entire piece of dramatic action (usually a long shot, or wide shot).

Match-frame edit
    An edit in which the last frame of the outgoing clip is in sync with the first frame of the incoming clip, such that the incoming clip is an extension of the outgoing clip.

Matchback
    The process allowing you to generate a film cut list from a 30-fps video project that uses film as the source material.

Matte
    A grayscale image that defines the transparency of an image when it is composited over another. A matte can be part of the image itself (alpha channel) or derived from another image (external matte).

Medium close-up (abbr. MCU)
    A shot between a MS and a CU. (i.e., a human figure taken from the chest up)

Medium shot (abbr. MS)
    A shot between a LS and a MCU (i.e.,. a human figure taken from the waist up)

Mental ray rendering software
    A high-quality, photorealistic raytracing renderer. The mental ray rendering software provides an extensive set of built-in functions and can create procedural textures (including bump and displacement maps), materials, atmosphere, and other volume renders.

Mix
    The combination of many sound elements -- dialogue, music, and sound effects into one cohesive and balanced soundtrack. Also called a "dub."

Mixed Mag
    A single mono stripe of the final mix of a film.

Moire Patterns
    Video artifacts that occur when recording an object that has many thin parallel lines; the lines appear to move or crawl and can be distracting.

Montage
    1) the juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated shots or scenes which, when combined, achieve meaning (as in, shot A and shot B together give rise to an third idea, which is then supported by shot C, and so on), or
    2) a series of related shots which lead the viewer to a desired conclusion (as in, shot A leads to shot B leads to shot C... leads to shot X; shot X being the outcome of the sequence).

MOS
    Literally "mit-out-sound." Used to denote a picture take for which no sound was shot.

Motor Cue
    The first changeover cue. When the projectionist sees it s/he is supposed to start up the motor on the other projector.

Moviola
    A brand name for a common editing machine. The separate film and soundtrack are run vertically from the feeding reels onto the take-up reels in sync with each other. Also called an "upright moviola" to differentiate it from a Moviola Flatbed.

Moviola Flatbed
    A brand name for a common flatbed editing machine.

Muticamera editing
    Creating a video sequence of a single scene using material recorded with multiple cameras.

Mute print
    A positive print which carries the picture only (silent print).

Negative
    Original film exposed in the camera.

Noise
    In video, an aberration that appears as very fine white specks (snow) and that increases over multiple generations.

Noncomposite video
    A video signal that does not contain horizontal and vertical sync pulses.

Nondestructive editing
    A method of editing whereby the captured source material is always left unchanged.

Non-drop-frame timecode
    An SMPTE timecode format that continuously tracks NTSC video at a rate of 30 fps without dropping frames to compensate for the actual 29.97-fps rate of NTSC video. As a result, non-drop-frame timecode does not coincide with real time.

Nonlinear
    Pertaining to instantaneous random access and manipulation of any frame of material on any track and on any layer of an edit sequence.

Nonlinear editing
    A type of editing in which you do not need to assemble the program from beginning to end. The nature of the medium and the technical process of manipulating that medium do not dictate how the material must be physically ordered.

NTSC
    National Television Standards Committee created the first international television system for use in the U.S. and other countries. It produces pictures by creating 525 alternating lines across the TV screen for each frame of video. Since PAL and SECAM, the other two world systems, were developed later, they took advantage of better technology. Insiders joke that NTSC means "Never the Same Color."

Numbering Machine
    A machine which inks code numbers onto the edge of the film and track.

Offline edit
    The preliminary or rough-cut editing that produces an EDL (edit decision list). A rough cut or preliminary edit usually performed using low-cost equipment, which can then be conformed on a high quality online system.

One-to-One Copy
    A sound transfer which is at exactly the same level and equalization as the original sound.

Online edit
    The final edit using the master tapes and an edit decision list (EDL) to produce a finished program ready for distribution; usually associated with high-quality computer editing and digital effects.

Optical
    A piece of film which has been manipulated in some special way, after it has already been shot, to create some special effect.

Optical printer
    Used in printing the image from one piece of film onto another by means of a lens.

Optical Track
    The soundtrack on a married print. It appears as a set of squiggly lines at the left side of the picture. When light is projected through the optical track it is read by a photocell behind the film. This photocell decodes the patterns of the light into sounds -- providing us with the dialogue, music, and sound effects that we hear on a film's soundtrack.

Orientation grid
    The visual representation of the frame size, location, and orientation in three- dimensional space. The orientation grid appears as equally spaced horizontal and vertical lines, with X, Y, and Z axis arrows extending from the center of the frame.

Original camera negative (OCN)
    The negative film originally passed through the camera.

Out
    A take, no part of which has been used in the cut work picture.

Overlap edit
    An edit in which the audio and video signals are given separate IN points or OUT points, so the edit takes place with one signal preceding the other. This does not affect the audio and video synchronization. Also called L-cut, delay edit, or split edit.

PAL
    Phase Alternation by Line. An international TV standard. (Also see NTSC.)

Pan
    To rotate the camera about on its vertical axis.

Pan-and-Zoom
    A technique for creating moving video from high-resolution still images by varying the magnification at which the image is displayed and/or changing the area of the image which fills the screen.

Parallel action
    A device of narrative construction in which the development of two pieces of action are presented simultaneously.

Parent timeline
    Any level of the timeline containing subordinate levels. For example, container clips are placed on the parent timelines of their contents.

Phasing
    The hollow sound that occurs when two identical tracks are run in near-perfect sync.

Pick-Up-Shot
    After a shot has been made on the set, the director sometimes wishes to re-do only part of the set-up. This re-do is called a pick-up shot since only part of the shot is picked up. It is slated with the same set-up letter, and the letters "p.u." are added at the end. For instance, a pick-up to shot 11A would 11Apu.

Pitch (film stock)
    The spacing between perforations.

Pre-Mix
    When many units are involved in a mix it is difficult, if not impossible, to play them all at one time. In this case, several of them are mixed together and this new mix (called the pre-mix) will replace those many elements at the mix. Also called pre-dub.

Preview code
    An additional reference numbering system, like key numbers, supported by Film Composer for comparing digital sequences with evolving work print versions using change lists.

Progressive
    Sequence for scanning an image where the vertical scan progresses from line 1 to the end in one sweep. In HDTV, there are a number of progressive vertical frame (refresh) rates allowed and used.

Protection I.P.
    See Registration I.P.

Re-encode
    To find and automatically convert high-resolution editing media to low- resolution browse media. The browse media is used for multiple purposes, including content creation, re-purposing, archive browsing, and story review. Also known as scavenge.

Reel
    A spool with a center hub and flat sides on which magnetic tape is wound. Generally, a spool of tape is referred to as a reel, and a spool of film is referred to as a roll.

Reel Balancing
    The act of apportioning the footage between all of the reels so that no reel has too little or too much film, and so that changeovers can be made without the audience noticing.

Reference
    The clip that is tracked to construct a motion path. See also search region, target area, and tracker.

Reference background
    An image or animation file used to help position objects in a scene. The reference background appears behind all objects.

Reference clips
    A clip that points to another sequence within the current project. Because reference clips only point to a sequence, they consume less memory and load faster than container clips.

Registration I.P.
    A certain type of interpositive which is printed in so particular a manner that the I.P. can be used as a replacement negative. For this reason, a registration I.P. is made whenever the original negative is being removed from the lab, so as to have a protection in case something were to happen to the original negative. A registration I.P. is, therefore, sometimes called a "protection I.P."

Rehearse
    To play a sequence in the Timeline from the preroll through the postroll.

Rehearse postroll
    To play a sequence in the Timeline from the current position to the postroll.

Rehearse preroll
    To play a sequence in the Timeline from the preroll to the current position.

Relational editing
    Editing of shots to suggest association of ideas between them.

Release Print
    The married print which is sent to theaters for showing. Normally, it is not made directly from the original camera negative, but is made from a dupe negative.

Render
    To create a final image or sequence of images from a scene description. The process of taking a geometric model, a lighting model, a camera view, and other image generation parameters, such as maps, and computing an image.

Rendering
    The computer process of creating a special effect, animation or editing task.

Resolution independence
    The ability to capture, work with, and output the same material at various predetermined resolutions. The working resolution, capture resolution, and output resolution can be totally independent from one another in Avid DS Nitris.

RGB
    Color represented as red, green and blue components. Most computer monitors use RGB pixels to display an image.

Roll
    To play a video. The digital equivalent of starting the tape deck.

Rolling text
    Text that moves vertically across an area over time. The most common example of rolling text is credits at the end of feature films and television programs.

Rough cut

    First assembly of a film which the editor prepares from selected takes, in script order, leaving the finer points of timing and editing to a later stage.

Rough Mix
    See Scratch Mix.

Run-Out
    The extra thirty feet or so placed at the end of any reel or unit going into the mix. This will prevent the mixer from running past the end of a reel when it is not desired.

Rushes
    Prints made immediately after a day's shooting so they can be viewed the following day. (a.k.a. dailies)  

Safe action area
    The regions of the video image considered safe from cropping for either the action or on-screen titles, taking into account variations in adjustments for video monitors or television receivers.

Scale bar
    A control in the timeline window that allows you to expand and contract the timeline area centered around the position indicator.

Scaling
    To change the size of an object by moving all the points outward from the object’s center (enlarging it), or shrinking it by drawing them all in toward that center.

Scene
    Action that occurs in one location at one time.

Scratch Mix
    A temporary mix used primarily to combine dialogue and music or an important sound effect. No attempt is made to correct sound problems. Also called a "slop mix" or "rough mix" or "dub."

Sequence
    A series of shots or scenes which has a beginning, middle and end (like a chapter in a book).

Sequence shot
    A long take that extends for an entire scene or sequence. It is composed of only one shot with no editing.

Set
    The location where the film is being shot.

Set-Up
    1) An individual camera position. A given scene will usually be covered with several different camera angles and lens sizes. Each of these is a different set-up. In American notation, each set-up for a given scene (say, scene 11) will be given a different set-up letter (11, for the master, and 11A, 11B, 11C, etc., for other angles). 2) Can also refer to the editing room table equipment -- synchronizer, rewinds, splicing block, et al.

Shot
    A recording of a single take.

Shot reverse shot cutting
    Usually used for conversation scenes, this technique alternates between over-the-shoulder shots showing each character speaking.

Shutter Speed
    The shutter electronically the amount of time that light passing through a lens exposes onto the CCD. Most camcorders are set at a shutter speed of 1/50 sec, with fast shutter speeds varying from 1/120 sec through to 1/10,000 sec. The higher the speed the more precise the detail and the less blur noticeable.

Single Card
    A credit in which only one name appears on a card.

Slate
    The black-and-white board which is struck together at the beginning of every take. It is used to provide a visible and audible sync point as well as providing a visual record of the set-up and take numbers of the take. Also called a "clapper."

Slewing
    The synchronizing of decks in computerized editing systems.

Slide trimming
    The outgoing (A-side) and incoming (B-side) frames change because the clip remains fixed while the footage before and after it is trimmed. To change a clip’s location on the timeline, while retaining its duration and active frames.

Slip trimming
    The head and tail frames of the clip change because only the contents of the clip are adjusted. The frames that precede and follow the clip are not affected. To move the contents of a clip while its edit points remain fixed.

Slop Dupe
    See Dupe.

Slop Mix
    See Scratch Mix.

Slop Print
    See Dupe.

Slug
    See Fill.

SMPTE
    Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. A frame numbering system used for electronic editing and timing of video productions. Each frame of video is assigned a number. Timecode denotes the hours: minutes: seconds: frames (00:00:00:00) elapsed.

SMPTE Code
    A method of sync which is used for tape media, such as music recording tape or videotape.

SMPTE leader
    A leader placed at the head of release prints containing information for the projectionist and featuring numbers which are black on a medium density background. These numbers count down from 8 to 2 at 24 frame intervals ending at the first frame of the "2" followed by 47 frames of black.

SMPTE timecode
    A frame-numbering system developed by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers that is used primarily for electronic editing and timing of video programs.

Sound Reader
    An amplifier. Sound from the track is picked up from the sound heads on the synchronizer and fed into this reader, where it is translated into sounds that we can understand and amplified so we may hear it. It is also called a "squawk box."

Sounding
    The process of transferring sound onto a magnetic-striped 35mm picture print.

Spacing
    See Fill.

Split Reel
    A take-up reel which can be unscrewed into two sides. A core is placed inside and, after the sides have been screwed back together again, it can be used as a regular take-up reel. Since flatbed editing machines use film wound on cores, rather than on reels, this permits easy manipulation and projection of film cut on a flatbed without having to wind it all off the cores and onto take-up reels.

Spotting Session
    A meeting in which the director, composer, editor, and music editor determine exactly where the scoring for the film shall fall.

Sprockets
    The teeth on the film driving mechanism. These teeth link up with the sprocket holes on the film, those tiny perforations at the edge of the film, and transport the film forward at a designated rate. 35mm film has four sprocket holes for each frame, 16 mm film has only one, 70 mm has five.

Squawk Box
    See Sound Reader.

Squeezed Image
    See Anamorphic.

Steenbeck

    A brand name for a common flatbed editing machine.

Stinger
    It’s a new category of soundtracks. This new type is called a “Stinger” (which is very short: 3-8 seconds). Stingers are sounds or audio effects used to accompany short video sequences such as transitions, video effects or animated graphics. Scorefitter Volume 1 includes 4 stinger categories and 10 music source tracks. Scorefitter Volume 2 includes 15 music tracks. Both versions offer up to 12 variations (tempo, mood) per track, depending on the length to be generated.

Storyboard
    A storyboard is a view of the workspace, showing thumbnails of the clips in a video editing program. Storyboards also refer to sketches or descriptions of scenes to be shot in a movie before production gets underway.

Streamer
    A long line, usually three feet in length, drawn on the film to cue someone, either for an actor or actress, to let them know that a line to be looped is coming up, or a conductor to let him or her know that a musical cue is upcoming.

Streaming
    Streaming video is video that can be played in portions over a network, before the entire file is delivered

Stripe
    35mm track that contains one location for sound. Oxide has been glued onto part of a piece of clear 35mm film. In order for the track to take up correctly on reels, another, thinner, stripe is also glued onto the top of the film. It is called the "balance stripe" and is usually not recorded onto.

Striping
    The act of gluing a thin layer of oxide onto the 35 mm picture. Later on, sound will be transferred onto it in a process called "sounding."

Superimposition
    Also called a super. An optical in which one image is seen at the same time as another.

Surround Sound
    Any multichannel audio system designed to provide both front and rear sound sources (in addition to left and right channels). Surround sound adds a third dimension to the program.

Sync (Synchronize)
    The condition when the sound and the picture that was taken on the set line up in the manner in which the events actually occurred during the shooting.

Sync pop

    A single frame tone placed on the sound track so as to correspond with the "2" frame on the SMPTE leader.

Synchronizer
    A machine which has several rotating wheels with sprockets on them. By placing pieces of film or soundtrack on these wheels these pieces can be run in perfect sync with each other.

Sync Point
    Any visual or aural place in the film which can be used to find the sync between the two. The normal sync point is the slate.

Sync word
    The portion of SMPTE timecode that indicates the end of each frame and the direction of tape travel.

Tail frame
    The last frame in a clip of film or a segment of video.

Tail slate
    The slate information recorded at the end of the take instead of at the beginning; usually recorded upside down.

Tails out
    The outside of the reel.

Take
    The single recording of a set-up. If take one is not satisfactory to the director he will do take two, then take three, until he is satisfied. The next set-up will start with take one again.

Take-Up Reel
    A metal or plastic reel on which film is stored.

Tilt
    To turn or rotate the camera up or down in shooting.

Time relative-to-start time
    Time is displayed as though the start of the clip is at 00:00:00:00.

Timecode
    An electronic indexing method used for editing and timing video programs. Timecode denotes hours, minutes, seconds, and frames (00:00:00:00) elapsed on a videotape. Address track timecode is recorded simultaneously with the video picture.

Timeline
    A view of the workspace that focuses on the timing of your clips.

Timing
    The act of correcting the color balance of the individual takes in the cut negative. Each shot must be balanced individually so that the slight differences between them can be evened out. Also called "color-correcting" or "balancing."

Title animation
    Motion graphics for titles, such as openings and closings of films and TV programs, commercials and sporting events.

Top timeline
    The topmost level of the timeline; this is where you can see all the clips that comprise your sequence.

Track(s)
    Timelines are divided into horizontal sections known as tracks. Clips are arranged in various tracks to adjust their timing relative to one another.

Track reference
    A way of making one track play another track’s data. The referencing track points to the source clip in the referenced track.

Track selector
    A method of selecting one of the tracks from a track group; only the selected track is to be played. For example, a track selector can indicate which of four alternate views of the same scene is to be played.

Tracker
    In motion tracking, a structure associated with a specific region of interest and containing one set of data points. You can use multiple trackers on the same clip to define complex motion.

Tracking
    The positioning of video heads during playback of a tape so that the heads reproduce the strongest possible signal. Tracking is adjusted on the deck before recording or capturing.

Tracking edit
    A zero duration edit used as a reference during transition edits (dissolves, wipes, and so forth) on computerized editing systems.

Transfer
    A sound copy. After a day's shooting, the sound is on 1/4 inch tape. It is then transferred onto mag stock for use in editing.

Trim
    A piece of a take which is left over after a portion of that take has been cut out and used in the cut of the film. A piece which comes before the section used in the film is called a "head trim," a portion after the section used is called a "tail trim."

Trim Bin
    A large barrel into which takes of film are hung. They are usually rectangular and lined with a felt-like material to prevent the film from scratching as it hangs down into the pin from a rack of pins above it. Also called a "trim barrel."

Trim Tabs
    See Cinetabs.

Uncompressed video
    A recorded or captured video stream that is not processed by a data compression scheme. The video signal remains uncompressed at all stages of the process: input, storage, and output. Uncompressed video conforms to the ITU-R 601 standard.

Unit
    See Element.

Universal format
    1080/24p is sometimes referred to as the universal format for television because of its suitability for translation into all other formats to produce high- quality results.

Up cut
    In editing, to cut the end of the previous scene, often by mistake. In general, to cut short.

UpnP AV
    UPnP AV (Universal Plug and Play Audio and Video) is a set of standards for the seamless network connectivity and interoperability between PCs, consumer electronics devices and mobile devices. One of the main characteristics of UPnP AV devices is the easy set-up; e.g. via auto-detection of the media server. An UPnP AV MediaServer is a software that enables network streaming of digital media such as photos, movies and music throughout the home. There are Media Servers available for most operating systems such as Windows® (including Vista) and Mac. The most common ones are Windows® Media Connect® which is now part of Windows Media® Player 11, El Gato EyeConnect or Allegro Media ServerTM to support iTunes, TwonkyMedia and many more.

Vectorscope
    A visual display that shows the electronic pattern of the color portion of the video signal. It is used to adjust the color saturation and hue by using a stable color reference such as color bars. The Avid Vectorscope monitor uses a single-line display.

Virgin Stock
     Soundtrack stock onto which no sound has yet been recorded.

Walla
    A background sound effect of a crowd murmuring.

Widescreen
    Video material produced in wider aspect ratio than the standard TV ratio (4:3 or 1.33:1) is commonly referred to as widescreen video. In general anything with an aspect ratio above 1.66:1 can be considered widescreen. Widescreen material is presented on DVDs in either anamorphic or letterboxed format. At times widescreen material is also cropped into 4:3 format using pan-and-zoom.

Wild Sound
    See Wild Track.

Wild Track
    Sound recorded on the set with no accompanying picture. Also called "wild sound."

Wipe
    Visible on screen as a bar travelling across the frame pushing one shot off and pulling the next shot into place. Rarely used in contemporary film, but common in films from the 1930s and 1940s.

Work Picture
    The cut-together film. Also called the "cut" or "cut picture."

1080i
    1080 x 1920 sized pictures, interlace scan. The frame rate can be 25, 29.97, or 30 Hz.

1080p
    1080 x 1920 sized pictures, progressively scanned. The frame rate can be 25, 29.97, or 30 Hz, as well as 23.976, 24, 50, 59.94, and 60 Hz.

10Base-T and 100Base-T

    Low-cost point-to-point 10Mb/sec and 100Mb/sec Ethernet using four unshielded twisted pairs (UTP) of wire (only two pairs are actually used) with RJ-45 connectors.

24p
    24-fps progressive media. Twenty-four full frames per second digital video progressively captured. In most cases, it refers to the HD picture format of 1920x1080, though it is also used with 1280x720 images.

24PsF
    24p segmented frame. Video captured in a filmlike way, formatted for digital recording. Like film, the images are then recorded to tape as two temporally coherent fields (segments), one with odd lines and the other with even lines.

25p

    25-fps progressive media.

2D layer
    A layer in which objects are stacked on top each other. Objects cannot intersect in this type of layer.

2D textures
    Images that are mapped to the object surface. An algorithm is used for “wrapping” the texture around the object’s surface so that the pattern curves and distorts realistically.

3/4-inch U-matic
    One of the first composite videocassette formats, in which the composite signal is recorded onto 3/4-inch tape. Used for many years, particularly in field recording, the U-matic format is slowly being replaced by more advanced and lightweight systems.

3D compositing
    Compositing which takes place in the Z plane depth.

3D layer
    A layer in which objects are positioned based on their locations in three- dimensional space. Objects can intersect in this type of layer.

3D manipulators
    A set of 3D controls that allow you to manipulate primitives, properties, and operators in a viewport. Manipulators provide “handles” that can be directly moved in 3D space to modify specific parameter values.

3D objects
    Anything with a position and a representation in 3D space. Some objects have a special role, such as cameras and lights, while others serve as controls for other objects, such as waves and manipulators.

3D textures
    Also called solid textures. A 3D texture is created by a computer procedure with a set of parameters instead of a picture file.

4:2:2 digital video
    A digital video system defined by the ITU-R 601 (CCIR-601) technical documentation. 4:2:2 refers to the comparative ratio of sampling of the three components of the video signal: luminance and two color channels.

4-2-4
    The method of recording and playing back Dolby Stereo sound for film. The tracks are mixed down from their four-track format to a two-track form. It is this two-track version that is transferred to optical track and married with the picture. At the theaters, Dolby equipment expands the two tracks back into four.

5.1
    A surround sound system that uses three speakers across the front (right, left and center) and two stereo speakers in the rear (right and left), along with a subwoofer.

720p
    720 lines, progressive scan. Resolution is 1280 x 720, scanned at 60 Hz.